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geophysical techniques

Geophysical techniques are non-invasive technologies that measure variations in the physical characteristics of the subsurface. Geo9 uses various technologies to characterise the geology, geological structure, groundwater and contamination paths beneath the Earth's surface. Each technique has different operating principles and applications. Geo9 use the most appropriate technique to suit each geological setting and circumstance. Some of our most commonly used techniques are shown.


Geo9 is the only Australian company to use seismoelectric soundings for groundwater exploration since 2011. Since 2013 Geo9 has applied an innovative portable seismoelectric system which since 2015 has provided the additional inclusion of electrotelluric data. Geo9 has been at the forefront of applications in groundwater investigations, dam seepage studies, contamination mapping and geotechnical applications, creating a 3D aquifer or structural map for each project. 


Geo9 was the world's first Willowstick magnetometric resistivity surveyor. This technique directly energises and maps groundwater flow paths. The technology is effective for mapping groundwater paths, contamination flowpaths, identifying the extent of aquifer connectivity and dam seepage paths. Geo9 completed Willowstick’s first two Australian projects for major water management utilities. More detail here.

Transient Electromagnetics (TEM)

We map the conductivity of subsurface rocks with TEM. This technique measures the decay time of an induced electrical field in the ground. This method is particularly suitable for mapping target areas of interest. 


With resistivity, we generate a direct current on the surface of the ground and measure its path to see how strongly the underground rocks oppose a flow of current. This enables us to find major geological faults, geological boundaries and fracture zones and infer the location and extent of groundwater. Our resistivity surveys are typically between 60m and 100m in depth, although we can go as deep as 150m.

High Resolution Magnetics and Gravity

This technology is another option for mapping geological boundaries and faults.

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